Who is responsible for allowing these risks?
Parties responsible for dangerous or defective products vary, depending on the product and circumstances, but it can be anyone (the manufacturer, wholesaler, and/or retailer) that made or sold the product despite knowning about a defect or dangerous quality.
For prescription drugs, potentially liable parties may be the drug manufacturer, the lab where the drug was tested, the pharmacist, and/or the medical provider who prescribed the drug. The drug manufacturer is responsible for authorizing the appropriate tests before submitting the drug for approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as well as properly labeling the drug so that consumers are made fully aware of any risks associated with that product.
For consumer goods, it can be the company that makes the product, the company that distributes or markets it, and/or the company that sells it, depending on the circumstances.
Typically, product liability claims are based on theories of negligence, strict liability, breach of contract, breach of warranty or guaranty, or under the Uniform Commercial Code. Product liability cases are often quite complex (and costly) and pursuing one requires the assistance of an attorney.